Diabetes is creating health havoc in modern times. Understanding the day-to-factors that can make your blood sugar level rise and fall is the key to offset the devastating effects of this disease. According to WHO, over millions of people globally are succumbing to the impairing effects of Diabetes and it is eventually projected to become one of the leading causes of deaths by 2030.
Research states that healthy lifestyle is one of the key factors for aggravating or preventing Diabetes. Few years back, Diabetes was more prevalent among older people but now it is catching up with even young adults over eighteen years of age.
With awareness, the wreckage caused by Diabetes can be avoided, minimized, delayed or at least treated. Dr. Kaushi Ghosh, MBBS. Dip. Diabetology, Consultant Physician & Diabetologist, shares with Future Healthcare certain life-saving insights about the types of diabetes, its symptoms, debilitating effects and some effective ways of its prevention.
What is Diabetes Mellitus?
When pancreas don’t produce adequate insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar, it leads to high blood sugar or uncontrolled diabetes that if unchecked, impairs many of the body systems especially nerves and blood vessel.
What is Type-1 Diabetes?
Type-1 Diabetes, once known as juvenile Diabetes was more prevalent amongst juveniles and adolescents. This type of Diabetes is mainly triggered by genetic factors wherein the insulin production is either not produced or is generated minimally.
Sometimes there are no symptoms of Type-I diabetes. Less insulin or no insulin production is the main source of this diabetes. It is an essential to inject insulin on daily basis to balance the insulin level in body for these kinds of patients.
What is the most common type of Diabetes?
It has been found that most people suffer from Type 2 Diabetes. It is mainly triggered by unhealthy lifestyle. When cells develop insulin resistance and do not use the insulin produced optimally to turn glucose into energy, Type 2 Diabetes develops.
Lack of exercise, bad diet, obesity, stress, depression, alcohol and smoking can increase the risk factors of Type 2 Diabetes manifold. This type of Diabetes was more common with adults above 45 years and older. But now young adults are also catching up with Type 2 Diabetes because of debilitating lifestyle quality.
What is Gestational Diabetes?
Pregnancy has the tendency to build-up excess sugar in your blood. If the pancreas is unable to generate adequate insulin to handle this rise in blood sugar levels, it leads to Gestational Diabetes. This temporary diabetic condition is triggered due to weight gain or genetic history factors.
What is Pre – Diabetes?
It is estimated that there are millions of people whose blood glucose levels are on the higher side but not enough to be diagnosed as Diabetes yet. This state has been identified as Pre-Diabetes state. Unhealthy lifestyle can aggravate this glucose level and healthy habits can revoke its ill effects.
What is Hypoglycemia?
When the level of glucose in the blood falls below 4 mmol/L (72mg/dL), it is known as the chronic state of Hypoglycemia.
How to manage Hypoglycemia?
A mild state of Hypoglycemia can be managed with 15-20 g of fast acting carbohydrates like fruit juice, sweets, sugary fizzy drinks or glucose tablets. Some patients may also need slow acting carbohydrates or mild degree of insulin depending on their condition.
However, blood test is imperative to check the glucose levels 15-20 mins after Hypoglycemia.
Severe Hypoglycemia patients are advised not to take any chances but to consult a Diabetologist immediately for treatment.
What is Hyperglycemia?
It is a condition where excessively high amount of glucose circulates in the blood.
What are the symptoms of Hyperglycemia?
- Extreme thirst
- Need to urinate often
- Dry skin
- Excessive hunger
What are the symptoms of Diabetes?
- High blood level of glucose
- Unclear vision
- Dry skin
- Frequent urination
- Weight loss
How does Diabetes spread?
Type-I, Pre-Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes are commonly transmitted genetically. They also develop due to poor food habits and inadequate exercise.
What are the common blood investigations recommended to detect Diabetes?
- Fasting plasma glucose
- Glucose tolerance test
How to prevent Diabetes?
- Better lifestyle and healthy diet
- Regular exercise
- Regular medication as per doctor advice
- Checkup of teeth at a regular interval
- Controlling of blood pressure
- Quit smoking
- Consult with doctor at least once in a month
- Checkup of blood sugar level, blood pressure at a regular basis
What are the organs commonly affected by Diabetes?
Who are in risk factors of Diabetes?
- Person with obesity
- Person with a cardio vascular disease and hypertension
- Physical inactivity
- Family history of diabetes
- History of polycystic ovary syndrome
Dr. Kaushik Ghosh
MBBS. Dip. Diabetology
Consultant Physician & Diabetologist